Nkurunziza Vedaste1,*, Vincent Kalumire Cubaka2, Sebuhoro Dieudonne3, Tihon Vincent4, Muganga Raymond2
1Kibizi District Hospital, Southern Rwanda
2College of Medicine and health sciences, Kigali, Rwanda
3Rwanda Biomedical Center (RBC), Kigali, Rwanda
4Single Project Implementation Unit (SPIU), Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda
Introduction: Antibiotic over-prescription is a global public health problem. This increases antimicrobial resistance, health costs, and other adverse effects. In Rwanda, most outpatient visits occur in health centers where most antibiotics are prescribed. This study aimed to assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescription practices in selected health centers in the District of Gisagara, Rwanda.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included 645 antibiotic prescriptions between January and December 2017 in the health centers of Kigembe, Kibayi, and Agahabwa of Kibilizi Hospital, Gisagara district in Southern province, Rwanda. Data were collected from outpatient consultation registries. A systematic sampling technique was used to select study participants. A checklist comprising clinical symptoms, signs, diagnosis, and prescribed antibiotics was used for data collection. EPI DATA and STATA software were used for data entry and analysis.
Results: The average of antibiotic prescriptions was 54.2%. The mean age of patients treated was 26.6 years. The common symptoms related to antibiotics prescription were fever 29%, cough 26.9%, and running nose 17%. The most prescribed antibiotics were: amoxicillin (37.1%), penicillin V (13.2%), and cloxacillin (12.1%). The main indication was upper respiratory tract infection, 40.6%. The rate of the appropriateness of antibiotics prescription was 38.6%.
Conclusion: Antibiotics prescription is inappropriate in the three health centers. There is a need to train health center nurses in diagnostic and rational antibiotic practices to limit the antibiotics' over-prescription and antimicrobial resistance.